Australian Skills Classification


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The Australian Skills Classification (ASC) was developed to provide a common language of skills to increase understanding and recognition of skills across occupations, sectors, and contexts. Consultation with JSA’s Consultative Forum and with some Jobs and Skills Councils has identified limitations and weaknesses of the ASC including the need for stronger stakeholder input.

The ASC will be retained on the JSA website while work commences on the development of a new national skills taxonomy. As outlined in the JSA annual report “Towards a National Jobs and Skills Roadmap”, the work on a National Skills Taxonomy will start from first principles with stakeholders to gain a joint understanding across industry and government of the purpose of a national skills taxonomy, its role in a more joined-up tertiary education sector and principles that should underpin its design.

To support existing users while the new project develops, a final update to the ASC was published in December 2023. No further updates to the ASC are planned while consideration of the development of a national skills taxonomy is underway.

JSA will provide more information on the National Skills Taxonomy project in the coming months. To be part of early discussions please contact

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Australian Skills Classification - December 2023

Australian Skills Classification - December 2023.xlsx3558713



The Australian Skills Classification (ASC) is a product of Jobs and Skills Australia, within the Commonwealth of Australia.
With the exception of the Commonwealth Coat of Arms, JSA’s logo, any images or photographs, any material protected by a trade mark and where otherwise noted, the content of the ASC is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence, CC BY 4.0 licence. Please note that this CC BY licence includes a disclaimer of warranties and liabilities in favour of the Commonwealth of Australia.
The ASC includes information from the following entities. JSA has modified some or all of this information, and the following entities have not approved, endorsed or tested these modifications:

  • O*NET Resource Centre – ie O*NET 21.2 Database and O*NET 23.1 Database – by the U.S Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration (USDOL/ETA), used under the CC BY 4.0 license. O*NET® is a trademark of USDOL/ETA
  • Australian Bureau of Statistics, within the Commonwealth of Australia, used under the CC BY 4.0 license
  • Trending and Emerging Skills Flag Data Source: Lightcast, Analysis.

JSA used data records provided by Lightcast in the preparation of the ASC.
Jobs and Skills Australia supports and encourages the dissemination and exchange of information provided in the ASC.
Use of, including to copy, redistribute, remix, transform, or build upon, all or any part of the ASC must include the following attribution: Australian Skills Classification, Jobs and Skills Australia, Commonwealth of Australia. Used under Creative Commons BY 4.0 licence.

Specialist tasks are designed to describe day-to-day work within an occupation, and skills clusters show groups of similar specialist tasks. Tasks within a cluster are broadly transferable – if you can do one task in the cluster, you can likely do the others. Skills clusters illustrate a new way of looking at the labour market at a ‘deeper’ level than occupational classifications or qualifications, by showing how skills are related and connected to one another outside of the concept of an occupation. Skills clusters do not take into account qualifications, registration or licencing required to undertake certain tasks.

Please select an occupation


Job titles

Specialist tasks

Technology Tools

A technology such as software or hardware, used within an occupation

The Similar Occupations are based on a Skills Transition dataset which uses the Australian Skills Classification to quantify the degree of similarity between occupations based on their underlying skills.

The methodology uses a machine learning technique called Natural Language Processing (NLP) to consider not only shared skills between occupations, but also the similarity in the phrasing, wording and meaning of skills. This similarity is expressed as a ‘similarity score’ between two occupations. The scores have been classified as high, medium and low in this interface.

Click on the search field below to select an occupation and view a list of other occupations that are most similar in terms of their skills profile. You can also download the full Skills Transition dataset below.

Please select an Occupation

The skills transition model is unable to find strong matches for this occupation. You can explore the closest matches to this occupation based on the current model in the downloadable data file.

The results provided above reflect a new release and will be refined and expanded over time (including through the inclusion of additional datasets). The information presented above can inform analysis of potential skills transitions in the labour market, however, it is based on machine learning model outputs and may not fully reflect all aspects of labour market transitions (such as qualification, licensing or regulatory requirements for some occupations). For career information please visit Your Career.
As with all aspects of the ASC JSA welcomes feedback by emailing


Occupation Similarity Top 10 - December 2023

Occupation Similarity Top 10 - December 2023.xlsx723793


Occupation Similarity Top 10 - December 2023 (CSV)




December 2023

Australian Skills Classification - December 2023

Australian Skills Classification - December 2023.xlsx3558713


Australian Skills Classification Methodology.docx

Australian Skills Classification Methodology.docx692216


Australian Skills Classification 3.0 Release Report

Australian Skills Classification 3.0 Release Report.docx321280


Occupation Similarity Top 10 - December 2023 (CSV)



Previous Release

Australian Skills Classification - November 2022

Australian Skills Classification - November 2022.xlsx2325192



Jobs and Skills Australia values the input of our stakeholders and thanks you for taking the time to provide feedback on the Australian Skills Classification.
If you would like to contact us directly about the Australian Skills Classification, or have additional questions about the methodology, licensing or usage, you can email

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The Australian Skills Classification (the Classification) is an evidence-based data set from Jobs and Skills Australia that outlines the core competencies, specialist tasks and technology tools required for occupations in current Australian contexts.

The Classification offers a common language of skills for Australia, enabling stakeholders to identify and articulate skills using a detailed and universal taxonomy.

Detailed information about how the Australian Skills Classification was developed is available at in our ‘Australian Skills Classification Methodology’ on the Downloads tab of the interface.

The Australian Skills Classification complements the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO). 

NEC is an acronym for “Not Elsewhere classified”. 

NEC occupations are those that are not captured in another part of ANZSCO due to their particular attributes such as being an occupation in which very few people are employed, being relatively new to the occupation market, or involve very specific skillsets but can be generalised to an occupation group or cluster. 

For example, the NEC occupation group 139999 Specialist Managers NEC contains 7 occupations – Airport Manager, Ambassador, Ambulance Services Manager, Archbishop, Bishop, Harbour Master and Security Manager (Non-ICT).

Skills data for NEC occupations is not as comprehensive as for other profiles. It includes specialist tasks and technology tools, but not core competencies or the time that is generally spent by the occupation on each specialist task.

Specialisations are commonly used titles which refer to a subset of jobs belonging to an ANZSCO
6-digit occupation.

These jobs involve the performance of specific tasks and use of specific technology tools in addition to some or all of the broader range of tasks usually performed in the 6-digit occupation. As the Classification is industry-agnostic, specialisations reflect the specific contexts in which some work is undertaken. This helps stakeholders across sectors see their occupations and skills better reflected in the Classification.

There are more than 1,400 specialisations in ANZSCO. We prioritise specialisations that add critical value and context to the Classification and that impact the tools and programs supported by our data.

Specialisation profiles only feature the additional specialist tasks and technology tools performed by the specialisation. They do not re-list the adjoining ANZSCO 6-digit occupation’s specialist tasks or technology tools. These components from the adjoining occupation profile should be considered in conjunction with the additional details provided in our specialisation profiles. For core competency information for specialisations, use the scores provided in the adjoining occupation profile. Time spent for specialist tasks is not available for specialisation profiles.

We have quantified the degree of similarity between occupations using a machine learning technique that considers the shared tasks between occupations as well as the similarity in the phrasing, wording and meaning of skills.  This similarity is then expressed as a ‘similarity score’.

The occupation to occupation similarity scores have been released as a dataset and interactive interface, and the top matches for each occupation are now also displayed on occupation profiles in the Classification.

Core competencies are the fundamental skills common to all jobs and are the basis upon which all work is performed. Currently there are different terms for core competencies in other skills frameworks and taxonomies and across training and education, including ‘employability skills’ and ‘foundational skills’.

The Classification features ten core competencies common to every occupation in Australia:

  • Digital engagement
  • Initiative and innovation
  • Learning
  • Numeracy
  • Oral communication
  • Planning and organising
  • Problem solving
  • Reading
  • Teamwork
  • Writing.

The Classification uses a 10-point scale to describe the complexity of each core competency for each occupation. This 10-point scale is referred to as ‘anchor values’ or ‘scores’. Each score has a corresponding description that indicates the level of capability attributed to that score.

Each occupation is allocated a score for each core competency. Each score aligns with the complexity required by that competency for an occupation. That is, they indicate the level of ability required for that competency in an occupation.

It is important to note that the scores do not indicate how important a core competency is to an occupation. 

An anchor value of 1-3 indicates an occupation requires a basic level of a core competency. An anchor value of 4-7 indicates an intermediate level is required.  An anchor value of 8-10 indicates an occupation requires a high level of proficiency for a core competency.

Specialist tasks describe day-to-day work activities within an occupation. Specialist tasks can be transferable across occupations and sectors, but they are also useful for differentiating occupations. The Classification can show where another occupation utilises the same specialist task, however, this should not be taken as a measure of overall similarity or direct transferability between those roles.

For example, the specialist task ‘Monitor and maintain inventories of materials, resources, equipment or products’ is aligned with Librarians, Primary School Teachers and Senior Livestock Farm Workers, however the processes and procedures unique to these occupations’ sectors are likely to vary greatly.

Specialist tasks have been created by gathering and synthesising a range of qualitative and quantitative data that explains various responsibilities and work activities required for specific occupations. However, while care is taken to represent best practice and safe working conditions, specialist tasks are not designed to cover licensing or regulatory requirements or advise of their existence in relation to a specific occupation or industry.

Skills statements are long form descriptions of the specialist tasks that seek to better articulate or describe the broad scope of activities, knowledge, understanding, and intention that underpin work tasks. They vary in content based on their context, but generally seek to draw out the reasons behind undertaking work tasks, outline important steps, provide examples, or provide more information on the work, regulatory, or other context. Each skill statement is unique to its specialist task.

Skills statements were created to assist Classification users with a consistent understanding of the meaning of specialist tasks and offer users the opportunity to obtain deeper insights from Classification data.

More information about the development of the skills statements and their uses is available in the ‘Australian Skills Classification: 3.0 Release Report’ available on the Downloads tab of the interface.

Specialist clusters contain groupings of similar specialist tasks. These tasks are broadly transferable – if you can do one task in the cluster, you can likely do most of the others. While these tasks are broadly transferable, this should not be taken as a measure of overall similarity or direct transferability between the occupations that utilise these skills.

Specialist clusters sit within cluster families, which are often industry, sector or activity-wide groups of skills clusters. For example, “Art and entertainment” is a cluster family, containing a range of skills clusters relating to creating, producing, designing, implementing and otherwise engaging in artistic, creative and entertainment activities. “Create or perform music” is a specialist cluster that sits within the Art and entertainment cluster family, and contains a range of tasks that are related to creating or performing music, such as the specialist task “Adjust tuning or functioning of musical instruments”.

A technology tool refers to the software or hardware typically used within an occupation. The Classification describes software and equipment types or categories rather than specific packages or products. Common technology tools are featured across most occupations, and include things like search engines, email systems and spreadsheet software.

Technology tools that are not included in the common technology tools group are often highly specialised and industry-specific, such as medical imaging apparatus, financial analysis software, and radio frequency transmitters or receivers.

Technology tools have been enriched with descriptions and extended descriptions. Extended descriptions provide Classification users with insight into skills or knowledge that may be required to operate technology tools. They offer information about the type of organisations or industries use technology tools, how they use them, and which other technology tools might be used concurrently. The Descriptions offer this information as well, but in a shorter format.

The Descriptions are included in the interface, however the Extended Descriptions are only available in the downloadable dataset.

Technology tool categories are groupings of similar technology tools. Each category also has a description which defines the tools that are grouped together.

For each technology tool, examples of that tool that are used in Australia are provided. These examples are not comprehensive lists of every example of that tool but rather common examples that might be used in the Australian labour market.

Several technology tools are so universal that they are likely to be used by most or all occupations. These tools are included in every Classification profile and do not appear separately in the technology tools lists.

These tools are:

  • Spreadsheet software
  • Word processing software
  • Presentation software
  • Email and calendar software
  • Other Office suite software
  • Operating system software
  • Desktop publishing software
  • Search engine and information retrieval software
  • Virtual team and collaboration software
  • PDF viewing and editing software
  • Internet browsers
  • Personal computers, laptops and accessories
  • Smart phones and other mobile devices

Trending skills are defined as skills that have grown in demand over the past five years in a particular occupation. They are not necessarily new skills, but skills that are increasing in demand as a proportion in all jobs advertised for that occupation over a five-year period.

Emerging skills are trending skills that are also new to particular occupations. These are distinct from other trending skills in that they have recently emerged in some occupations where they were not previously identified in job advertisements for that occupation within the last five years.

The Classification’s occupation profiles attempt to represent a detailed picture of the skills used in an occupation, and also reflect the transferability of skills across occupations. If you feel that occupation profiles are missing a major component or are misrepresented, we encourage you to provide this feedback at

Jobs and Skills Australia houses the Classification in an interactive online interface on its website at The complete Classification is also available for download through the interface.

Jobs and Skills Australia supports and encourages the dissemination and exchange of information provided in the Classification. Using, copying, redistributing, integrating, or building upon any part of the Classification must include a statement identifying the source of information as the Australian Skills Classification via Jobs and Skills Australia.

For general use, the following statement should be included as a minimum requirement:

  • Australian Skills Classification, Jobs and Skills Australia, Commonwealth of Australia. Used under Creative Commons BY 4.0 licence.

If you use all or part of the Australian Skills Classification verbatim, please include:

  • This [document/website/app] includes content of the Australian Skills Classification by Jobs and Skills Australia, Commonwealth of Australia. Used under CC BY 4.0 licence.

If you make edits or additions to the Australian Skills Classification, please include one of the following statements:

  • This [document/website/app] includes content derived from the Australian Skills Classification by Jobs and Skills Australia, Commonwealth of Australia. Used under CC BY 4.0 licence.
  • [Your name or company] has modified all or some of this content, and Jobs and Skills Australia has not approved, endorsed or tested the modified content.

The Classification currently contains over 1,500 occupations profiles, covering ANZSCO 4-digit unit groups and 6-digit occupations, as well as NEC occupations and specialisations.

It does not include emerging occupations which are not yet reflected in ANZSCO or traditional labour market information.

Our occupation titles align with those in ANZSCO, so it is also possible that the occupation you are searching for is known by an alternative ‘official’ title. Our interface search functionality allows for the entry of common alternative job titles and will match these to the corresponding ANZSCO occupation.

If your occupation is not currently included, we welcome your feedback. Please email us at

The Classification does not duplicate job search tools. The Classification alone does not make career recommendations or link to employment vacancies. However, job seekers can use occupation profiles to understand skill needs, identify transferable skills, explore similar occupations to plan career moves, and utilise other Classification components (such as technology tools) to identify training opportunities to improve potential recruitment outcomes.

Occupation profiles can also help job seekers describe their full range of skills (including relevant skills picked up through work experience, formal education and on-the-job training) for use when creating resumes, cover letters and exploring career goals.

Jobs and Skills Australia values the input of our stakeholders and thanks you for taking the time to provide feedback on the Australian Skills Classification. We are interested in hearing about:

  • How you use the Classification and its many components (such as specialist tasks, skill statements, technology tools and core competencies) in your work
  • How we can make the Classification more accessible and user friendly
  • How can improve our data

If you would like to contact us directly about the Australian Skills Classification, or have any questions about the methodology, licensing, usage, or components of the Classification, you can email us at

Jobs and Skills Australia will carefully consider feedback to determine how it can be used to improve or modify the Classification and its components, and will take steps to conduct further consultations to obtain more comprehensive feedback and data where appropriate.